Rio de Janeiro is the second largest city in Brazil and the state capital of Rio de Janeiro. The city is best known for its beaches, carnivals, football, music and its well preserved tropical forests. Commonly known just as Rio and once a Portuguese colony, it was also the capital of Brazil for nearly two centuries during the 1800s. Brasilia became the capital in 1960 when Brazil achieved independence. Tourists mainly get attracted to Rio not just because of it musical diversity and beaches but also because of its flora and fauna.